1. nanomsgxx-messages(7)
  2. nanomsgxx
  3. nanomsgxx-messages(7)


nanomsgxx-messages - Nanomsgxx Messages


nanomsg is all about passing messages around from nodes to others, so nanomsgxx provides abstractions to make managing such messages easy and efficient.
This chapter introduces the different abstraction types that allows you to deal with messages in nanomsgxx.


Messages passed from and to sockets are represented by the nnxx::message type, it features:

Every memory buffer managed by a nnxx::message object is allocated and freed using the nn_allocmsg and nn_freemsg functions of the nanomsg C API.
Here's an example of how you could use a nnxx::message instance:

void forward_message(nnxx::socket &from, nnxx::socket &to)
  nnxx::message m;

  // These operations don't copy the message, it's simply passed
  // around.
  m = from.recv();

  // Could also be made shorter:
  // to.send(recv.from());

Messages are very useful objects for managing memory buffers but they don't provide any interface to work with these buffers. Standard C++ defines the iostream interface for this purpose, and nanomsgxx messages come along with input and output streams that provide compatibility with existing standard C++ code.


Output streams are useful for abstracting away the support on which we write formatted data to, if we want to build a message to send it over a socket we can use such stream to do so.
Instances of nnxx::message_ostream are designed for this use case, here's an example:

void send_hello_world_42(nnxx::socket &s)
  nnxx::message_ostream os;

  // Simply use the object like any standard output stream.
  os << "Hello World ";
  os << 42;

  // Get an instance of nnxx::message and send it through the
  // socket, the connected peer will receive "Hello World 42".


When receiving a message from a socket we can use parsers based on standard C++ streams to read the data. nanomsgxx provides the nnxx::message_istream type, here's a usage example:

std::vector<int> recv_int_vector(nnxx::socket &s)
  // Build a new input stream from a received message.
  std::message_istream is { s.recv() };

  // Use a standard input stream iterator to read all integers.
  std::istream_iterator<int> begin { is };
  std::istream_iterator<int> end   {    };

  // It's that easy ;)
  return { begin, end };


When using nanomsg raw sockets (nnxx::SP_RAW), messages can be associated with control headers that provide meta informations relative to the underlying protocol (routing for example).
In the basic C API provides the nn_sendmsg and nn_recvmsg for this purpose, which lets us retrieve the control information within the nn_msghdr object we pass to these functions.

This feature is abstracted in nanomsgxx with the nnxx::message_control type, which we can get or set and receiving and sending messages, this is particulary useful when dealing with nnxx::REP sockets if we want to handle requests in parallel.

nnxx::socket s { nnxx::SP_RAW, nnxx::REP };

// ...

nnxx::message_control ctl1;
nnxx::message_control ctl2;
nnxx::message req1;
nnxx::message req2;
int flags = 0;

// Receiving messages and associated control headers.
req1 = s.recv(flags, ctl1);
req2 = s.recv(flags, ctl2);

// ...

// Sending responses in different order, it's a raw socket,
// we're not bound to follow the end-to-end enforcements of
// simple sockets.
s.send(std::move(rep2), flags, std::move(ctl2));
s.send(std::move(rep1), flags, std::move(ctl1));




Achille Roussel

  1. achille.roussel@gmail.com
  2. May 2014
  3. nanomsgxx-messages(7)